Geography of Algeria
General information about Algeria
According to bridgat, the official name is the Algerian People’s Democratic Republic (Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire). Located in the northwest of the African continent. The area is 2381 thousand km2, the population is 30.9 million people. (2001). The official language is Arabic. The capital is Algiers (2.6 million people, 2001). Public holidays – Algerian Revolution Day on November 1, Independence Day on July 5. The monetary unit is the Algerian dinar.
Member of the UN (since 1962), OAU (since 1963), Arab League (since 1978), OPEC, OIC (since 1969). Associate Member of the EU (2001).
Geography of Algeria
Located between 19° and 37° north latitude, 8° west longitude and 12.5° east longitude. In the north, the territory of Algeria is washed by the Mediterranean Sea. The length of the coastline is 1300 km, land borders are 6 thousand km. In the west, Algeria borders on Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, in the south – on Mali and Niger, in the east – on Libya and Tunisia.
The shores are high, rocky, there are no bays deeply protruding into the land. The main bays are located in the area of Algiers and Oran, in the bays of the cities of Arzev, Bejaia, Skikda, Annaba.
The relief is dominated by plateaus and plains. In the north of Algeria, the main mountain ranges of the Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas converge in the east into the Ores massif. The highest points are Mount Shelia (2328 m) and Mount Lalla Khedidzha (2308 m). Between the mountain ranges there are plains: Oranskaya, Mitidzha, Annaba. In the southeastern part of the Sahara – the Ahaggar highlands, with the highest point of Algeria – Mount Tahat (3003 m).
The rivers of the Mediterranean basin are Sheliff (700 km), Isser, Summan, Rumel. The rivers of the endorheic basins of the high plateaus and the Sahara (oueds) remain dry for most of the year, but retain underground drainage: the oueds Saura, Irarat, and others.
The lakes occupy the basins of the High Plateaus and the Sahara. The most typical are sebkhas, which fill up during the rainy season. In the dry period, they are covered with a salt crust: Shott-Garbi (500 km2), Shottesh-Shergi (2 thousand km2), Shott-al Hodna (1 thousand km2).
Soils on the coast are fertile brown. In the mountains – brown leach and mountain-forest brown. In the desert – primitive (films of desert “tan”) and lateritic ferruginous-manganese crusts.
The vegetation on the coast is subtropical Mediterranean, represented by hard-leaved evergreen trees and shrubs. In the mountains, broad-leaved and coniferous species: cork oak, maple, ash, Atlas cedar, Aleppo pine, etc.; on high plateaus grass cover dominated by feather grasses (alpha). In the desert, annual plants are ephemera.
The basis of the fauna is the animals of semi-deserts and deserts: gazelles, antelopes, mouflons. Predators: jackals, hyenas, caracals, fennec fox. Mago macaques are found on the coast and northern slopes of the mountains. Reptiles are distributed throughout the territory. Lots of migratory birds. Coastal waters are rich in fish and crustaceans.
The climate on the coast is subtropical Mediterranean, on the high plateaus it is subtropical continental, in the Sahara it is tropical continental.
Algeria ranks first in Africa in terms of natural gas reserves (3.7 trillion m3), mercury (12 thousand tons) and tungsten (22 thousand tons) ores and third place in oil reserves (1.5 billion tons ). The bowels of Algeria are rich in iron ore – 5.4 billion tons, phosphorites – 1250 million tons, non-ferrous metals, gold, etc.
Population of Algeria
In 1980 the population was 18.7 million people, in 1990 25.5 million people. The population growth rate has declined from 3% in the 1980s. up to 2% in the 1990s and amounted to 1.6% in 2001. Birth rate 25%, mortality 6%. Average life expectancy is 71 years. Age and sex composition of the population (2000): 0-14 years 35% (men 51%, women 49%); 15-64 years 61% (men 51%, women 49%); 65 years and older 4% (men 46%, women 54%).
Urban population 57.7%, rural 42.3%. 23% of men and 42% of women are illiterate. Ethnic composition of the population: 75% Arabs, 24% Berbers (Kabils, Sha-wiya, Mozabites, Tuareg), 1% Europeans. The language of communication is Arabic, Berber (tamazigh) is common. The state religion is Islam. 99% of the population are Muslims.