Hawaii State Facts, Symbols and History
Hawaii is a US state, part of the group of Pacific states. Population – 1,374,810 people (as of 2011), including Hawaiians (1%), mestizos (13%), Americans and groups of European origin (35%), Japanese (26%), Filipinos (9% ), Chinese (5%), etc. The urban population is about 70%. The official language is English, and native languages are partially preserved (in everyday life). The capital and largest city is Honolulu. Other major cities are Hilo, Kailua, Kaneohe. Oahu is the most economically developed island. See cities and towns in Hawaii.
The official nickname is the Aloha State (“Hospitality State”).
The state is located in the Hawaiian Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The area is 16.8 thousand km. On the island of Hawaii there are active volcanoes Mauna Loa and Kilauea, an extinct volcano Mauna Kea (height 4205 m).
Tropical trade wind climate. The average annual temperature is 18-25 degrees Celsius. Precipitation up to 4000 mm per year. Tropical rain forests and savanna.
- AbbreviationFinder: Demonstrates how the two-letter acronym of HI stands for Hawaii and a list of frequently used abbreviations related to the state of Hawaii.
The islands were first settled by Polynesians in the 6th-3rd centuries BC. e. Back in the 16th century, Hawaii was visited by Spanish sailors, but they were officially discovered by the expedition of the English captain James Cook, who named them the Sandwich Islands (1778). Europeans found several state entities in Hawaii, which at the beginning of the 19th century merged into a single kingdom. The development of interest in the production of sugar cane led the United States at the end of the century to more active economic and political influence on the affairs of the archipelago. The indigenous population, which found itself in difficult economic conditions, was dying out; by the end of the century, about 30,000 people remained from the 300,000th Polynesian population.
In 1893, with the direct intervention of the United States, Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown, and a year later the Republic of Hawaii was formed, which was directly dependent on the United States, and S. Dole became its president. In 1898, at the height of the Spanish–American War, the United States annexed Hawaii and granted it “territory” status in 1900. In 1908, the port of Pearl Harbor, since the end of the 19th century. playing the role of international, became the base of the US Navy. The Japanese air attack on this base on December 7, 1941 led the United States to enter World War II. On August 21, 1959, after the adoption of amendments to the local constitution, Hawaii received the status of a state (the last, 50th state in a row).
The basis of the economy is tourism and the service sector. There are many resorts, natural and historical attractions on the islands, including those included in the system of national parks.
Main industries: sugar and fruit-canning.
Agriculture. 1 million hectares are processed. The best lands are occupied by plantations of export crops: pineapples, sugar cane, coffee, sisal, bananas. Nuts are also produced. Floriculture. The main consumer culture is rice. Animal husbandry is of secondary importance.
Hawaii is the most important transport hub of the North Pacific Ocean, through which the routes connecting the USA and Canada with East Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand pass.