Manama, المنامة (Arabic, in Latin transliteration: Al-Manāmah), Manama (English) is the capital of Bahrain, located on the northeastern coast of the island of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf of the Arabian Sea.
The Al-Fateh Mosque is one of the largest mosques in the world, accommodating up to 7,000 people. The dome is made of molded fiberglass and weighs 60 tons. Manama, Bahrain
The climate in the city, spread over desert, dry lands, combines the features of tropical and subtropical zones. The average air temperature in January is +17°С, in July – up to +38°С.
The average annual rainfall is about 90 mm. The rainy season in Manama lasts from December to February, with slight precipitation also in March, April, November, sometimes in May. In the rest of the year, there is no rain: the city is dominated by drought and dust storms are periodically observed. The capital city of Manama (Muhafazat al-‘Asimah) is one of the 5 provinces of Bahrain. It includes the municipalities of Al Manamah and Jidd Haffs
Population of Manama: 163,696 66% of the population come from Saudi Arabia and Iran, the rest are Europeans and Southeast Asians, only about 8% (55,230 people) are indigenous.
The vast majority of the city’s population (more than 80%) professes Islam. More than 50% of the Muslims of Manama are Shia, the rest are Sunni. Members of the royal family also belong to the Sunni minority. Among the believers living in the capital, there are Christians, Jews, as well as adherents of the Hindu and Buddhist religions and Zoroastrianism.
Area: 154.7 km²
The history of the city begins in the 1st century, when it was founded by the Arabs as the capital of the independent principality of Bahrain. In the VI century. Manama was captured by Persian troops and already in the 7th century. attached to a fairly vast territory of the Arab Caliphate. In the X-XI centuries. here was the center of the Karmatian state. 13th century The state of Bahrain regained its independence, and Manama acquired the status of its capital.
In Islamic chronicles, the city was first mentioned in 1345. In 1521 the city was captured by the Portuguese, and in 1602 by the Persians. In 1783, the reign of the al-Khalifa dynasty began, whose descendants rule the country and at the present time, he defeated the Persians and expelled them from the territory of Bahrain. In 1783, the state of Bahrain regained its independence, which was proclaimed in Manama.
Al Fateh Islamic Center – the main handicraft center in the Kingdom of Bahrain (Manama)
In 1820, the British first appeared in Manama, landing on the island in order to establish their dominance here. Control over the island was established in 1871 in the form of a protectorate.
During the First World War, a large British military base was located in the vicinity of Manama. In the late 1920s, large US oil companies launched their activities in the Manama region. On the basis of agreements with Great Britain and the Sheikh of Bahrain, the American firm Bahrain Petroleum Company won a long-term concession to develop oil fields in the Manama region. Oil exploration and production began in 1932. After the end of the Second World War, in 1946, the residence of the head of the British administration in the Persian Gulf zone was located in Manama.
Mass actions of the inhabitants of Manama in support of the independence of the state of Bahrain took place in 1951-1956. In the late 1950s, the National Liberation Front of Bahrain was formed in Manama, whose leaders were the organizers of popular uprisings in 1961-1967. In 1968, after the formation of the Federation of Arab Principalities of the Persian Gulf, which included Bahrain, Qatar and Oman, a referendum was held in Manama and other settlements of Bahrain in order to determine the attitude of the population of the country to its new status. Bahrain gained independence in 1971 and Manama again became its capital.
- National Museum(displaying numerous numerous tools, weapons, pottery and small gold items from the Dilmun civilization)
- Beit Al-Quran Museum, House of the Qur’an (which houses a large collection of manuscripts, editions of the Qur’an and unique examples of wood carvings)
- “Portuguese fort”Kalat Al-Bahrain (inscribed in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List ) with numerous archaeological sites III-I millennium BC. on its territory (this place was a large trading port of the ancient civilization of Dilmun).
- Riffa and Salman bin Ahmet al-Fateh forts– they house a small historical museum
- Arab fort of AradXVI century.
- The House of Al Jasris the birthplace of the reigning monarch.
- Seyadi House– built in the 19th century. with excellent architecture and decoration.
- Headquarters of the Gulf News Agency– (Bahrain, Qatar, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia).
- Barbar Temple– its ruins lie within the village of the same name, is a complex of 3 religious buildings dated III-II millennium BC.
- The archaeological complex “Royal Graves”is the most impressive of the country’s 85,000 burial mounds. According to legend, the necropolis of ancient monarchs is located here, as evidenced by the size of the burial – up to 15 m in height and 45 m in diameter.
- The King Fahd Causeway Bridge– opened in 1986 is about 25 km long and connects Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. This is one of the most expensive bridges in the world (its cost is estimated at $36 billion). It crosses the island of Umm an Naasan, on the territory of which there is a small nature reserve. And on the bridge itself, a colorful restaurant with a viewing platform attracts attention.
- The Al-Khamis Mosque(probably dated to the 7th or 11th century) is one of the oldest Islamic buildings in the region.
- Al-Fateh Mosque– with its prayer hall for 7000 believers (the largest building in Bahrain.
- The Friday Mosque– with a multicolored mosaic minaret, built in 1938.
- Cathedral of Saint Christopher– built in 1953 on Muthannabi Avenue