Modern History Part V
The introduction of work and drive machines forced the abolition of the guild system and thus led to a fundamental change in the labor constitution. It relieved the human workforce, but at the same time opened up new opportunities to use people as workers. After G. Stephenson Having built its first locomotive in 1814, the transport system also changed fundamentally. However, it cannot be overlooked that the general realization of the bourgeois revolutionary ideas of 1789 initially suffered a severe setback in the course of the industrial revolution. Freedom and equality could hardly be achieved for the masses of the proletariat that arose during industrialization; the new class of wage workers in the free capital relationship had to organize itself before the struggle to improve their social situation could have any prospect of success (labor movement). The essential difference between the as yet undifferentiated view of the early socialists and the claim of K. Marx, to have founded a “scientific socialism”. This set itself the goal of replacing the bourgeois society based on private ownership of the means of production by socialism in the form of a dictatorship of the proletariat and then by communism (K. Marx: “Marginal glosses” on the Gotha program). The expected classless society should emerge through the self-destruction of capitalism. This prognosis was changed by W. I. Lenin’s program of the world proletarian revolution. The Russian October Revolution of 1917 should be the beginning on the way to the world revolution.
According to Harvardshoes, the victory of Bolshevism in Russia has greatly changed the balance of power between the great powers. The year 1917 therefore also marks an important turning point for a subdivision of the modern age, which was in fact “leveled” by the revolutions in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe in 1989/90. The October Revolution marked the beginning of an ideological bloc formation between East and West that lasted until the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact (1991) (East-West conflict). This new type of block formation became apparent immediately after the First World War. But after its end, this war also set free developments that resulted in the gradual emancipation of the overseas territories that had been tapped and conquered by the colonialism and imperialism of the European powers in the 19th century. An important turning point was also expressed in 1917 when the USA entered the world war as a great power and decided it practically very quickly. The main focus of global political power was no longer in Europe, or at least no longer in Europe alone. These more recent historical developments determine the more recent scientific discussion of the turning points in recent and recent history.
The basic models of European society with specific problem constellations are (M. R. Lepsius): the continuously democratic, at the same time class-structured industrial society (represented by Great Britain), the centrally administered industrial system with high territorial consistency (represented by France), the non-democratic industrial mobilization model with a resulting fascist counter-revolution (represented by Italy and Germany) and that pre-democratic industrial mobilization model (represented by Russia). The history of modern times at the end of the 20th century includes the question for Europe: What is Europe – after the loss of its global political status as a global regulatory power – and what does this initial situation mean for the next stage of European integration?
Contemporary history and basic lines of the modern age
The “most recent phase of the modern age”, the beginning of which is set differently in historiography, has also been referred to as contemporary history. However, this term is very closely tied to the point of view of the respective living generation and to the epoch of their period of life, so that H. Rothfels defined the term contemporary history as “the epoch of the living and their scientific treatment”.
The term modern times and its subdivisions also turn out to be heuristic terms that are intended to describe certain main tendencies in the historical course since around 1450. Its basic lines include the emergence of the new human and world view and the modern state system of national states, the principle of the raison d’être, secularization, the increasing “writing” and “scientification” of culture, the perception of time, which already at the beginning of the modern age the onset of »globalization« with increasing economic interdependence, the industrial revolution, an economic and political emancipation of the bourgeoisie and then increasingly of the workers on the way to a modern industrial society. Their traditionally set limits have appeared since the transition to the 21st century, Globalization), increasingly broken and dissolved from the development towards a global information society.